What's the advancement like in your spouse's job? Is it hard to make rank and advance? Easy? What are the requirements for making rank in your spouse's branch and job?
I find this all too interesting...probably because I'm geek! I like to learn how other branches work.
My husband is submarine Navy, and they go by mutliples, meaning they have x amount of spots open for the next rank (enlisted) so you can score great on the test (E4-E7 take tests), and still not make rank. For example, if they only need 3 E6's in your spouse's rate (job), then you have to score really high on the test to make it. But, in another rate, they might need 50 E6's so you can score pretty low on the test and still make it. I know someone who has been AD for almost 12 years and is still an E5, because it's SO hard to advance in his rate. He's a seabee construction electrician.
E7 is different...you have to take a test to make board for Chief. If you make board, then you are eligible for Chief. Then the board (consisting of a board of senior enlisted) goes through the records and decides who makes it and who doesn't. E8 and E9 are just looked at...records are looked at each year but no tests are taken. You have to be an E7 for 2 years prior to being eligible for E8, and 2 years being an E8 before eligible for E9.
For E1-E3, I think it's just time in service...no tests for those if I remember correctly, but I could be wrong. E4-E6 require tests, but you have to be in rank for x amount of time before taking the test...I think it's 2 years. But, if you get an EP (early promote) on your eval, you can take the rating exam 1 year early.
I don't know much about officers. I do know that there are age limits and time in service requirements for different enlisted to officer programs.
I will also add that the Navy enlisted program is the only one where you wear the new rank (on your uniform) as soon as the results come out, but you don't get paid right away. You can get paid anytime from then to the next 6-12 months depending on where you scored on tests/evals. Every other branch (to my knowledge) doesn't allow the service member to wear the rank on their uniform until they are getting paid for the new rank.