IF YOU DON'T HAVE DRY MILK POWDER: substitute liquid milk and reduce the amount of water by the amount of liquid milk you used. Example: the recipe calls for 1 cup of water and 1 Tbsp. dry milk powder. Use 1 Tbsp. liquid milk and remove 1 Tbsp. water from the 1 cup before adding to the bread pan. An easy way is to just add the milk to the measuring cup before adding water to equal 1 cup.
Interesting. Thank you for the information.
If you don't have bread flour, all purpose flour will work. Bread flour has a different gluten/protein content and results in a finer texture in the yeast breads, but my experience has been that it doesn't affect taste at all. I've not bought bread flour in years!
What is the difference between bread flour and all-purpose flour? Can they be interchanged?
Bread flour is a high-gluten flour that has very small amounts of malted barley flour and vitamin C or potassium bromate added. The barley flour helps the yeast work, and the other additive increases the elasticity of the gluten and its ability to retain gas as the dough rises and bakes. Bread flour is called for in many bread and pizza crust recipes where you want the loftiness or chewiness that the extra gluten provides. It is especially useful as a component in rye, barley and other mixed-grain breads, where the added lift of the bread flour is necessary to boost the other grains. (or you can buy vital wheat gluten and add it)
All-purpose flour is made from a blend of high- and low-gluten wheats, and has a bit less protein than bread flour - 11% or 12% vs. 13% or 14%. You can always substitute all-purpose flour for bread flour, although your results may not be as glorious as you had hoped. There are many recipes, however, where the use of bread flour in place of all-purpose will produce a tough, chewy, disappointing result. Cakes, for instance, are often made with all-purpose flour, but would not be nearly as good made with bread flour.
If you use yeast from a jar or buy it in bulk, measure out 2 1/4 tsp for every packet of yeast that a recipe calls for.
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