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No more nipple confusion: Study says pacifiers may help breast-feeding

Posted by on May. 1, 2012 at 7:24 AM
  • 11 Replies

No more nipple confusion: Study says pacifiers may help breast-feeding

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Don't ban the binky! New research finds that pacifiers may encourage breast-feeding.

By Corey Binns

Got a wailing newborn? Parents have long used pacifiers to quiet them, despite warnings about nipple confusion from nursing experts.

Now, a few pediatricians are questioning the commonly held belief that pacis meddle with a newborn's breast-feeding. And in a complete about-face, the latest research suggests that pacifiers may encourage breast-feeding.

In December 2010, Oregon Health & Science University Doernbecher Children's Hospital locked up pacifiers in the newborn nursery to improve their breast-feeding record even more. To everyone's surprise, they saw breast-feeding rates drop as soon as the pacifiers were no longer readily available.

"In the lore of our community and some of our medical literature, pacifiers are said to negatively impact breast-feeding," says study author Carrie Phillipi, an associate professor of pediatrics and medical director of the hospital's Mother-Baby Unit. "I think that's not always the case."

Beginning in December 2010, nurses were instructed to give pacifiers only to babies who needed soothing for procedures such as circumcisions. Each time a nurse retrieved a pacifier from the supply closet, she had to enter a code and the patient's name.

"When we removed pacifiers from routine distribution, we weren't seeing the improvements we had expected," says Phillipi. She and Laura Kair, a resident in pediatrics, studied data collected on the feeding behavior of 2,249 babies born in the hospital between June 2010 and August 2011.

Prior to the pacifier lock-down, about 80 percent of babies born in the hospital were exclusively breastfed. After, the number dropped to about 70 percent.

Phillipi and Kair's research results didn't surprise John McDonald, a neonatologist and medical director of the regional women and children's program for Providence Health & Services, Oregon, who was not involved in the study. "When you look at all of the medical literature on the relationship between pacifiers and breast-feeding, the level of scientific evidence doesn't really support an adverse effect on pacifier use and exclusive breast-feeding."

Although hiding pacifiers in a supply closet sounds dramatic, many hospitals follow this tactic, as it is one of the "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" recommended by the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund. To achieve the coveted WHO Baby-Friendly Hospital status, a hospital must follow all ten steps.

"As our hospital is trying to get Baby-Friendly status, we anticipated that removing pacifiers would improve exclusive breast-feeding," says Kair. "Pacifiers were a low hanging fruit, removing them was an easy thing to do."

"The primary reason for WHO's policy on pacifiers is the potential for interference with suckling and establishing lactation," says Dr. Chessa Lutter, a senior advisor in food and nutrition for the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization.

"There is some evidence to suggest that giving pacifiers or bottle nipples can interfere with suckling and getting a good latch on. It's very important that the baby be able to properly latch on, which evolves over baby's first week of life. Establishing a good suck is extremely important for the mother as well, so her own nipple isn't irritated or damaged," Lutter says.

There's a wealth of widely accepted research to back up the WHO's support of exclusive breast-feeding. Moms who breastfeed have an easier time shedding pregnancy pounds, and it reduces their risk for some cancers. Breastfed babies have fewer ear infections and bouts of diarrhea, while also having reduced risk of certain cancers, obesity, and asthma.

Lutter says the WHO's policy "is an old one, put out in 1991. At that point the evidence showed pacifier use lowered breastfeeding. Since then, better randomized studies have been done and the evidence is very mixed. But I think really the concern is establishing a good suck at the get go and discouraging pacifier use to establish lactation."

So whether pacifiers interfere with this healthy habit is still up for debate.

"As we try to support more breast-feeding and we adopt some of these recommended standards like the Baby-Friendly Hospital status, it puts health systems, physicians and parents in this challenging place to say, ‘Is limiting pacifiers truly a proven practice that will help enhance breastfeeding?'" McDonald says.

Unfortunately, no one yet can answer why babies sucking on pacifiers has any impact at all on breastfeeding.

Pacifiers at Doernbecher Children's Hospital remain behind closed doors. The researchers are not recommending that any hospital or individual parent change their pacifier practice just yet. More research needs to be done, they say, pointing out that this was not a controlled trial, only an observational study.

One limitation of the observational study, Kair admits, is that parents could have brought pacifiers from home and those pacifiers would not have been documented in the study. But that was also the case before the study was conducted.

Kair and Phillipi are presenting their results at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting in Boston on Monday.

"As pediatricians and as moms ourselves, we want to promote breast-feeding because we know it's best for moms and babies," Phillipi says. "But we also want to know the best evidence, so that we can help moms be successful with that endeavor."

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by on May. 1, 2012 at 7:24 AM
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by on May. 1, 2012 at 9:27 AM


by on May. 1, 2012 at 9:46 AM
I don't care what the study concludes. My ds nver took to a binky and I'm glad. It subrtacted one thing I was going to have to break him of. I don't think I will try one on any subsequent children df and I have either.
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by on May. 1, 2012 at 11:05 AM
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HAHAH I'm not even reading the article! I always thought it was a ton of crappola! I'm sorry but people do NOT give enough credit to knowing their own chid. They think just because joe schmoe PHD says so, thats how it is. They don't give enough credit to their babies in the first place. Your baby knows what soothes them....your baby knows where food is coming from whether a nipple on a mom or nipple on a bottle. They aren't confused they just don't want it when you think they should get it.

by on May. 1, 2012 at 2:15 PM

Shannon took a pacifier, most of the time it was just to sooth her to sleep and when she wasn't feeling good.  As a toddler she was too busy but I always knew when she wasn't feeling well because she would come and ask me for her's.  She broke herself of the habit because she kept leaving it where the dog could get it and I got tired of spending money on new ones.  She got down to the last one and I told her that she was getting no more, to not leave it where Max could get it...One day we had gone out and when we got back home the pacifer was on the floor in pices.  Shannon picked it up, heaved a heavy sigh and took it to the garbage saying "bye bye ummie(her word for it)" and she never asked for it again.

by on May. 1, 2012 at 3:24 PM

*shrug* i had a pacifier and nursed like a champ for 18 months. my friend's daughter had a pacifier and didn't have enough patience to wait for letdown. it's a case by case basis.

by on May. 2, 2012 at 4:31 AM

They're always changing their minds, huh?

The way I saw it, when the kid realized he was hungry and nothing was coming out of the pacifier, he wasn't going to be all that confused about where to go.

My kids never had any confusion about where to go when hungry. But then, none of them were very big on pacifiers. They all outgrew them rather early without any prompting from me. Not that I'm taking credit for it. They just were never that into them after 4 or 5 months. 

Peace, and all that jazz...


a Browncoat4eva 

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by on May. 2, 2012 at 7:53 AM

As much as I love the informative baby articles, they really can be confusing because of how much the "expert" theories and finding flip flop.  I agree with a lot of people who say you just need to know your child.  I read these articles as guidelines or sometimes just for pure entertainment.  Especially when my little one decides to do something I find out of the ordinary.  But by no means do I believe every word.

And for me, I've learned first hand just how important it is to really get to know your child since I have one that is almost 18 and my second is only 20 months!  The space between them has made it like starting over so even though there are plenty of things I know and remember, there are a lot that sometimes throw me for a loop!

As for the pacifier, my son used it mostly to soothe to sleep or if something was bothering him.  By 10 months he didn't care about it anymore.  But he wasn't breastfed.  I was only 18 and felt strange about doing it.  My daughter also used it for the same purpose and she WAS breasfed AND formula fed and I had no problems with either.  She gave up the pacifier at 6 months.  So since I personally had good experiences with the pacifier, I will use it with this little one waiting to join us at the end of this month as well. 

I think the best saying I've ever heard is "To each his own."

by on May. 2, 2012 at 7:56 AM

by on May. 2, 2012 at 11:26 AM

For an infant, okay, for a child over a year, a pacifier does nothing but harm.

by on May. 2, 2012 at 5:13 PM

I successfully nursed all 3 of my kiddos...two of them were addicted to their pacis.  In fact, one of them had one in her hand and one in her mouth most of the day, LOL.

I nursed them all until they were nearly 3.


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