The apple emerged as a celebrated fruit at the beginning of the peopling of Earth. Whether you start with Adam and Eve or the anthropological data on Stone Age man in Europe, the apple was there. Greek and Roman mythology refer to apples as symbols of love and beauty. When the Romans conquered England about the first century B.C., they brought apple cultivation with them. William Tell gained fame by shooting an apple off his son's head at the order of invaders of Switzerland.
The Pilgrims discovered crabapples had preceded them to America, but the fruit was not very edible. The Massachusetts Bay Colony requested seeds and cuttings from England, which were brought over on later voyages of the Mayflower. Other Europeans brought apple stock to Virginia and the Southwest, and a Massachusetts man, John Chapman, became famous for planting trees throughout Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois (his name became "Johnny Appleseed"). Seeds from an apple given to a London sea Capitan in 1820 are sometimes said to be the origin of the State of Washington apple crop (now the largest in the U.S.).
As the country was settled, nearly every farm grew some apples. Although some were very good, most of the early varieties would be considered poor today. Of nearly 8000 varieties known around the world, about 100 are grown in commercial quantity in the U.S., with the top 10 comprising over 90% of the crop.
Our modern orchards combine the rich heritage of apple growing with research and field trials to grow an annual U.S. crop exceeding 220,000,000 bushels. New varieties are still being discovered and cultivated, with the best eventually becoming "household words" like McIntosh, Delicious, Empire, Rome, Spartan, Cortland, Granny Smith, etc.. Recent arrivals include Fuji, Braeburn, Liberty, and more than a few "throwbacks" to antique varieties now enjoying a resurgence.
Apples can be eaten plain, made into sauce or jelly, or they can be included in a variety of salads, meat dishes, pies, and other desserts. As a dried fruit, apples can be added to a variety of baked goods or in a fresh form, they can be used to produce juice, vinegar, cider, and alcoholic beverages, such as hard cider and apple brandy.
At Their Best:
Some types of apples are available year round and some are only available at specific times of the year. The peak season for apples will vary with different varieties and locations where they are harvested. The best types of apples are those that are picked fresh from the tree. Fresh picked apples will have the best flavor and an extra crisp texture. For fresh picked apples, visit local apple farms and farmers' markets during the harvest season in your location.
How to Buy:
Buy apples that are brightly colored, firm, and free of bruises or damaged skin. If the flesh gives under pressure, the apple will be soft. The skin on the apple should be taut and show no signs of shriveling. Select individual apples over pre-bagged apples so that you can see what you are selecting and have an opportunity to smell the apples to make sure they have a fresh smell and are not musty. The different types of apples are graded according to their size and quality. The higher the grade, the more expensive the apple. The end use of the apple will determine the variety of apple you should buy.
For best results, place apples in a perforated plastic bag, sprinkle with water and store in the coldest area of the refrigerator for 2 to 3 weeks. Apples give off a gas called ethylene that speeds up ripening, so they should be kept away from other fruits and vegetables to prevent them from ripening prematurely. Apples can be stored at room temperature for a short period of time but should be checked regularly because they will ripen more rapidly than if stored in the refrigerator. To store fresh picked apples for a long period of time, wrap them in paper and place folded side down in a single layer on a tray. Store in a cool, dark, dry place. The ideal temperature for storage is between 32°F and 40°F. Check frequently to see if any apples have begun to rot. Dried apples can be stored in a sealed plastic bag in the refrigerator for an indefinite period of time.
Unpeeled apples provide their most plentiful nutrients just under the skin. Apples are a good source of potassium, folic acid, and vitamin C.
A medium apple, approximately 5 ounces, has only 81 calories and a whopping 3.7 grams of fiber from pectin, a soluble fiber. A medium apple supplies 159 mg of potassium, 3.9 mcg of folic acid, 7.9 mg of vitamin C, and 9.6 mg of calcium.
Additionally, there are trace amounts of B vitamins, iron, magnesium, and zinc
Apples keep best and longest when refrigerated. Unrefrigerated, apples can become mushy in just two or three days. Purchase them at farmers' markets where you know they have probably been picked the day before market or at supermarkets where they are kept cool. Apples should be firm and blemish-free.
It's best to peel, core, and slice the apples first. Then prepare a bowl with 1 quart (1 liter) of water and 1/2 teaspoon of salt. Drop the apples into the prepared water for 10 to 15 minutes. Rinse them off and blanch in boiling water for 1 minute. Cool under running water, drain, and dry the apples on paper towels.
Arrange apple slices in a single layer on trays and put them into the freezer until thoroughly frozen. Remove and store them in heavy-duty plastic freezer bags. With this method you can avoid clumps of frozen fruit sticking together and can easily remove the quantity desired at any time.
Don't peel your apple. Two-thirds of the fiber and lots of antioxidants are found in the peel. Antioxidants help to reduce damage to cells, which can trigger some diseases.
The crabapple is the only apple native to North America.
2,500 varieties of apples are grown in the United States.
100 varieties of apples are grown commercially in the United States.
Apples are grown in all 50 states.
Apples are fat, sodium, and cholesterol free.
Most apples are still picked by hand in the fall.
Apple varieties range in size from a little larger than a cherry to as large as a grapefruit.
Apples were the favorite fruit of ancient Greeks and Romans.
Apples are a member of the rose family.
Most apples can be grown farther north than most other fruits, because they blossom late in spring, minimizing frost damage.
It takes the energy from 50 leaves to produce one apple.
Apples are the second most valuable fruit grown in the United States. Oranges are first.
In colonial time, apples were called winter banana or melt-in-the-mouth.
Do you like raw apples or cooked? What are your favorites?