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The First Bank of the United States was a central bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.
Establishment of the Bank was included in a three-part expansion of federal fiscal and monetary power (along with a federal mint and excise taxes) championed by Alexander Hamilton, first Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton believed a central bank was necessary to stabilize and improve the nation's credit, and to improve handling of the financial business of the United States government under the newly enacted Constitution.
The First Bank building is now a National Historic Landmark located in Philadelphia, PA.