Fixed vs. Growth: The Two Basic Mindsets That Shape Our Lives by Maria Popova
How to fine-tune the internal monologue that scores every aspect of our lives, from leadership to love.
âIf you imagine less, less will be what you undoubtedly deserve,â Debbie Millman counseled in one of the best commencement speeches ever given, urging: âDo what you love, and donât stop until you get what you love. Work as hard as you can, imagine immensitiesâŚâ Far from Pollyanna platitude, this advice actually reflects what modern psychology knows about how belief systems about our own abilities and potential fuel our behavior and predict our success. Much of that understanding stems from the work of Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck, synthesized in her remarkably insightfulMindset: The New Psychology of Success (public library), which explores the power of our beliefs, both conscious and unconscious, and how changing even the simplest of them can have profound impact on nearly every aspect of our lives.
One of the most basic beliefs we carry about ourselves, Dweck found in her research, has to do with how we view and inhabit what we consider to be our personality. A âfixed mindsetâ assumes that our character, intelligence, and creative ability are static givens which we canât change in any meaningful way, and success is the affirmation of that inherent intelligence, an assessment of how those givens measure up against an equally fixed standard; striving for success and avoiding failure at all costs become a way of maintaining the sense of being smart or skilled. A âgrowth mindset,â on the other hand, thrives on challenge and sees failure not as evidence of unintelligence but as a heartening springboard for growth and for stretching our existing abilities. Out of these two mindsets, which we manifest from a very early age, springs a great deal of our behavior, our relationship with success and failure in both professional and personal contexts, and ultimately our capacity for happiness.
The consequences of believing that intelligence and personality can be developed rather than being immutably engrained traits, Dweck found in her two decades of research with both children and adults, are remarkable. She writes:
For twenty years, my research has shown that the view you adopt for yourself profoundly affects the way you lead your life. It can determine whether you become the person you want to be and whether you accomplish the things you value. How does this happen? How can a simple belief have the power to transform your psychology and, as a result, your life?
Believing that your qualities are carved in stone â the fixed mindset â creates an urgency to prove yourself over and over. If you have only a certain amount of intelligence, a certain personality, and a certain moral character â well, then youâd better prove that you have a healthy dose of them. It simply wouldnât do to look or feel deficient in these most basic characteristics.
Iâve seen so many people with this one consuming goal of proving themselvesâin the classroom, in their careers, and in their relationships. Every situation calls for a confirmation of their intelligence, personality, or character. Every situation is evaluated: Will I succeed or fail? Will I look smart or dumb? Will I be accepted or rejected? Will I feel like a winner or a loser? . . .
Thereâs another mindset in which these traits are not simply a hand youâre dealt and have to live with, always trying to convince yourself and others that you have a royal flush when youâre secretly worried itâs a pair of tens. In this mindset, the hand youâre dealt is just the starting point for development. This growth mindset is based on the belief that your basic qualities are things you can cultivate through your efforts. Although people may differ in every which way â in their initial talents and aptitudes, interests, or temperaments â everyone can change and grow through application and experience.
Do people with this mindset believe that anyone can be anything, that anyone with proper motivation or education can become Einstein or Beethoven? No, but they believe that a personâs true potential is unknown (and unknowable); that itâs impossible to foresee what can be accomplished with years of passion, toil, and training.
At the heart of what makes the âgrowth mindsetâ so winsome, Dweck found, is that it creates a passion for learning rather than a hunger for approval. Its hallmark is the conviction that human qualities like intelligence and creativity, and even relational capacities like love and friendship, can be cultivated through effort and deliberate practice. Not only are people with this mindset not discouraged by failure, but they donât actually see themselves as failing in those situations â they see themselves as learning. Dweck writes:
Why waste time proving over and over how great you are, when you could be getting better? Why hide deficiencies instead of overcoming them? Why look for friends or partners who will just shore up your self-esteem instead of ones who will also challenge you to grow? And why seek out the tried and true, instead of experiences that will stretch you? The passion for stretching yourself and sticking to it, even (or especially) when itâs not going well, is the hallmark of the growth mindset. This is the mindset that allows people to thrive during some of the most challenging times in their lives.
This idea, of course, isnât new â if anything, itâs the fodder of self-help books and vacant âYou can do anything!â platitudes. What makes Dweckâs work different, however, is that it is rooted in rigorous research on how the mind â especially the developing mind â works, identifying not only the core drivers of those mindsets but also how they can be reprogrammed.
Dweck and her team found that people with the fixed mindset see risk and effort as potential giveaways of their inadequacies, revealing that they come up short in some way. But the relationship between mindset and effort is a two-way street:
Itâs not just that some people happen to recognize the value of challenging themselves and the importance of effort. Our research has shown that this comes directly from the growth mindset. When we teach people the growth mindset, with its focus on development, these ideas about challenge and effort follow. . . .
As you begin to understand the fixed and growth mindsets, you will see exactly how one thing leads to anotherâhow a belief that your qualities are carved in stone leads to a host of thoughts and actions, and how a belief that your qualities can be cultivated leads to a host of different thoughts and actions, taking you down an entirely different road.
The mindsets change what people strive for and what they see as success. . . they change the definition, significance, and impact of failure. . . they change the deepest meaning of effort.
Dweck cites a poll of 143 creativity researchers, who concurred that the number-one trait underpinning creative achievement is precisely the kind of resilience and fail-forward perseverance attributed to the growth mindset. She writes:
When you enter a mindset, you enter a new world. In one world â the world of fixed traits â success is about proving youâre smart or talented. Validating yourself. In the other â the world of changing qualities â itâs about stretching yourself to learn something new. Developing yourself.
In one world, failure is about having a setback. Getting a bad grade. Losing a tournament. Getting fired. Getting rejected. It means youâre not smart or talented. In the other world, failure is about not growing. Not reaching for the things you value. It means youâre not fulfilling your potential.
In one world, effort is a bad thing. It, like failure, means youâre not smart or talented. If you were, you wouldnât need effort. In the other world, effort is what makes you smart or talented.
But her most remarkable research, which has informed present theories of why presence is more important than praise in teaching children to cultivate a healthy relationship with achievement, explores how these mindsets are born â they form, it turns out, very early in life. In one seminal study, Dweck and her colleagues offered four-year-olds a choice: They could either redo an easy jigsaw puzzle, or try a harder one. Even these young children conformed to the characteristics of one of the two mindsets â those with âfixedâ mentality stayed on the safe side, choosing the easier puzzles that would affirm their existing ability, articulating to the researchers their belief that smart kids donât make mistakes; those with the âgrowthâ mindset thought it an odd choice to begin with, perplexed why anyone would want to do the same puzzle over and over if they arenât learning anything new. In other words, the fixed-mindset kids wanted to make sure they succeeded in order to seem smart, whereas the growth-mindset ones wanted to stretch themselves, for their definition of success was about becoming smarter.
Dweck quotes one seventh-grade girl, who captured the difference beautifully:
I think intelligence is something you have to work for âŚ it isnât just given to you.âŚ Most kids, if theyâre not sure of an answer, will not raise their hand to answer the question. But what I usually do is raise my hand, because if Iâm wrong, then my mistake will be corrected. Or I will raise my hand and say, âHow would this be solved?â or âI donât get this. Can you help me?â Just by doing that Iâm increasing my intelligence.