President Barack Obama discusses the negotiations with Capitol Hill on the looming fiscal cliff in front of middle âŚRacing to beat a midnight deadline, Vice President Joe Biden arrived on Capitol Hill Monday night to sell wary Democratic senators on an 11th-hour deal to avert income tax hikes on all but a sliver of the richest Americans.
Grinning broadly, Biden ignored reporters questions on whether he and Republican Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell had finally forged a compromise to avoid the "fiscal cliff" that threatened the still-fragile economy with a new recession. "Happy new year," he replied.
But a Democratic Senate aide told Yahoo News that "the White House and Republicans have a deal," while a source familiar with the negotiations said President Barack Obama had discussed the compromise with Democratic Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and Democratic House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi and "they both signed off."
The apparent agreement set up a Senate vote late Monday or possibly in the wee hours of Tuesday. The House of Representatives was due back at noon on Tuesday to take it up.
Under the compromise arrangement, taxes would rise on income above $400,000 for individuals and $450,000 for households, while exemptions and deductions the wealthiest Americans use to reduce their tax bill would face new limits. The accord would also raise the taxes paid on large inheritances from 35% to 40% for estates over $5 million. And it would extend by one year unemployment benefits for some two million Americans.
Biden, a 36-year Senate veteran, worked out the agreement with McConnell after talks between Obama and Republican House Speaker John Boehner collapsed.
But with time running short, the country appeared on track to go over the cliff at midnight -- though quick congressional action, and the fact that financial markets were to be closed on New Year's Day, were expected to limit the damage.
âToday, it appears that an agreement to prevent this New Year's tax hike is within sight, but it's not done,â Obama said in hastily announced midday remarks at the White House. âThere are still issues left to resolve, but we're hopeful that Congress can get it done â but itâs not done.â
"One thing we can count on with respect to this Congress is that if there is even one second left before you have to do what youâre supposed to do, they will use that last second," he said.
Obamaâs remarks â by turns scolding, triumphant, and mocking of Congress â came after talks between McConnell and Biden appeared to seal the breakthrough deal.
Efforts to modify the first installment of $1.2 trillion in cuts to domestic and defense programs over 10 years -- the other portion of the âfiscal cliff,â known as sequestration -- had proved a sticking point late in the game. Democrats had sought a year-long freeze but appeared to have caved to Republican pressure and signed on to just a two-month delay. That would put the next battle over those cuts right around the time that the White House and its Republican foes are battling it out over whether to raise the country's debt limit. Republicans have vowed to push for more spending cuts, equivalent to the amount of new borrowing. Obama has vowed not to negotiate as he did in 2011, when a bruising fight threatened the first-ever default on America's obligations and resulted in the first-ever downgrade of the country's credit rating.
Experts had warned that the fiscal cliff's tax increases and spending cuts, taken together, could plunge the still-fragile economy into a new recession.
âI can report that weâve reached an agreement on all of the tax issues,â McConnell said on the Senate floor. âWe are very, very close to an agreement.â
The Kentucky Republican later briefed Republicans on the details of the deal. Lawmakers emerged from that closed-door session offered hopeful appraisals that, after clearing a few last-minute hurdles, they could vote on New Yearâs Eve or with 2013 just hours old.
âTonight, I hope,â Republican Senator Bob Corker of Tennessee told reporters. âIt may be at 1, 2, 3, 4 in the morning. Oh, I guess thatâs technically tomorrow.â
Republican Senators said negotiators were still working on a way to forestall two months of the âsequesterâ spending cuts, about $20 billion worth. And some expressed disquiet that the tentative compromise ran high on tax increases and low on spending cuts -- while warning that failure to act, triggering some $600 billion in income tax increases on all Americans who pay it and draconian spending cuts, was the worse option.
McConnell earlier had called for a vote on the tax component of the deal.
âLet me be clear: Weâll continue to work on finding smarter ways to cut spending, but letâs not let that hold up protecting Americans from the tax hike,â McConnell urged. âLetâs pass the tax relief portion now. Letâs take whatâs been agreed to and get moving.âSenate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., followed by Sen. Pat Roberts, R-Kan., second from right, leaves âŚ
The final compromise needed to clear the Democratic-led Senate and Republican-held House. Aides in both chambers doubted that could happen by midnight â but emphasized that there was no need to move the family into the Doomsday bunker in the back yard. Yet.
Unlike a college student who writes an end-of-semester paper overnight before a morning deadline, then drops the assignment off hours after it was due, Congress can write its own rules to minimize the damage â and Americans whose taxes are staying the same wonât see a change in their bottom line.
âItâs basically a matter of saying itâs effective January 1,â one senior Republican aide shrugged.
But passage was not a sure thing: Both the AFL-CIO labor union and the conservative Heritage Action organization argued against the package.
The breakthrough came after McConnell announced Sunday that he had started to negotiate with Biden in a bid to "jump-start" stalled talks to avoid the fiscal cliff.
Under their tentative deal, the top tax rate on household income above $450,000 would rise from 35 percent to 39.6 percent -- where it was under Bill Clinton, before the reductions enacted under George W. Bush in 2001 and 2003.
Some congressional liberals had expressed objections to extending tax cuts above the $250,000 income threshold Obama cited throughout the 2012 campaign. Democrats were huddling in private as well to work out whether they could support the arrangement.
Possibly with balking progressives in mind, Obama trumpeted victories dear to the left of his party. "The potential agreement thatâs being talked about would not only make sure the taxes donât go up on middle-class families, it also would extend tax credits for families with children. It would extend our tuition tax credit thatâs helped millions of families pay for college. It would extend tax credits for clean energy companies that are creating jobs and reducing our dependence on foreign oil. It would extend unemployment insurance to 2 million Americans who are out there still actively looking for a job."
Obama said he had hoped for "a larger agreement, a bigger deal, a grand bargain," to stem the tide of red ink swamping the countryâs finances â but shelved that goal.
"With this Congress, that was obviously a little too much to hope for at this time," he said. "It may be we can do it in stages. Weâre going to solve this problem instead in several steps."
The president also looked ahead to his next budgetary battle with Republicans, warning that âany future deficit agreementâ will have to couple spending cuts with tax increases. He expressed a willingness to reduce spending on popular programs like Medicare, but said entitlement reform would have to go hand in hand with new tax revenues.
âIf Republicans think that I will finish the job of deficit reduction through spending cuts alone âŚ then theyâve another thing coming,â Obama said defiantly. âThatâs not how itâs going to work.â
âIf weâre serious about deficit reduction and debt reduction, then itâs going to have to be a matter of shared sacrifice. At least as long as Iâm president. And Iâm going to be president for the next four years, I hope,â he said.