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Was "Allah" the Biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during PRE-ISLAMIC times?

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 The Archaeology of the Middle East

The religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters.




Archaeologists have uncovered temples to the Moon-god throughout the Middle East. From the mountains of Turkey to the banks of the Nile, the most wide-spread religion of the ancient world was the worship of the Moon-god. In the first literate civilization, the Sumerians have left us thousands of clay tablets in which they described their religious beliefs. As demonstrated by Sjoberg and Hall, the ancient Sumerians worshipped a Moon-god who was called many different names. The most popular names were Nanna, Suen and Asimbabbar. His symbol was the crescent moon. Given the amount of artifacts concerning the worship of this Moon-god, it is clear that this was the dominant religion in Sumeria. The cult of the Moon-god was the most popular religion throughout ancient Mesopotamia. The Assyrians, Babylonians, and the Akkadians took the word Suen and transformed it into the word Sin as their favorite name for the Moon-God. As Prof. Potts pointed out, "Sin is a name essentially Sumerian in origin which had been borrowed by the Semites. "

In ancient Syria and Canna, the Moon-god Sin was usually represented by the moon in its crescent phase. At times the full moon was placed inside the crescent moon to emphasize all the phases of the moon. The sun-goddess was the wife of Sin and the stars were their daughters. For example, Istar was a daughter of Sin. Sacrifices to the Moon-god are described in the Pas Shamra texts. In the Ugaritic texts, the Moon-god was sometimes called Kusuh. In Persia, as well as in Egypt, the Moon-god is depicted on wall murals and on the heads of statues. He was the Judge of men and gods. The Old Testament constantly rebuked the worship of the Moon-god (see: Deut. 4:19;17:3; II Kngs. 21:3,5; 23:5; Jer. 8:2; 19:13; Zeph. 1:5, etc.) When Israel fell into idolatry, it was usually the cult of the Moon-god. As a matter of fact, everywhere in the ancient world, the symbol of the crescent moon can be found on seal impressions, steles, pottery, amulets, clay tablets, cylinders, weights, earrings, necklaces, wall murals, etc. In Tell-el-Obeid, a copper calf was found with a crescent moon on its forehead. An idol with the body of a bull and the head of man has a crescent moon inlaid on its forehead with shells. In Ur, the Stela of Ur-Nammu has the crescent symbol placed at the top of the register of gods because the Moon-god was the head of the gods. Even bread was baked in the form of a crescent as an act of devotion to the Moon-god. The Ur of the Chaldees was so devoted to the Moon-god that it was sometimes called Nannar in tablets from that time period.

A temple of the Moon-god has been excavated in Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley. He dug up many examples of moon worship in Ur and these are displayed in the British Museum to this day. Harran was likewise noted for its devotion to the Moon-god. In the 1950's a major temple to the Moon-god was excavated at Hazer in Palestine. Two idols of the moon god were found. Each was a stature of a man sitting upon a throne with a crescent moon carved on his chest. The accompanying inscriptions make it clear that these were idols of the Moon-god. Several smaller statues were also found which were identified by their inscriptions as the "daughters" of the Moon-god. What about Arabia? As pointed out by Prof. Coon, "Muslims are notoriously loath to preserve traditions of earlier paganism and like to garble what pre-Islamic history they permit to survive in anachronistic terms."

During the nineteenth century, Amaud, Halevy and Glaser went to Southern Arabia and dug up thousands of Sabean, Minaean, and Qatabanian inscriptions which were subsequently translated. In the 1940's, the archeologists G. Caton Thompson and Carleton S. Coon made some amazing discoveries in Arabia. During the 1950's, Wendell Phillips, W.F. Albright, Richard Bower and others excavated sites at Qataban, Timna, and Marib (the ancient capital of Sheba). Thousands of inscriptions from walls and rocks in Northern Arabia have also been collected. Reliefs and votive bowls used in worship of the "daughters of Allah" have also been discovered. The three daughters, al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat are sometimes depicted together with Allah the Moon-god represented by a crescent moon above them. The archeological evidence demonstrates that the dominant religion of Arabia was the cult of the Moon-god.

In Old Testament times, Nabonidus (555-539 BC), the last king of Babylon, built Tayma, Arabia as a center of Moon-god worship. Segall stated, "South Arabia's stellar religion has always been dominated by the Moon-god in various variations." Many scholars have also noticed that the Moon-god's name "Sin" is a part of such Arabic words as "Sinai," the "wilderness of Sin," etc. When the popularity of the Moon-god waned elsewhere, the Arabs remained true to their conviction that the Moon-god was the greatest of all gods. While they worshipped 360 gods at the Kabah in Mecca, the Moon-god was the chief deity. Mecca was in fact built as a shrine for the Moon-god.

This is what made it the most sacred site of Arabian paganism. In 1944, G. Caton Thompson revealed in her book, The Tombs and Moon Temple of Hureidha, that she had uncovered a temple of the Moon-god in southern Arabia. The symbols of the crescent moon and no less than twenty-one inscriptions with the name Sin were found in this temple. An idol which may be the Moon-god himself was also discovered. This was later confirmed by other well-known archeologists.

The evidence reveals that the temple of the Moon-god was active even in the Christian era. Evidence gathered from both North and South Arabia demonstrate that Moon-god worship was clearly active even in Muhammad's day and was still the dominant cult. According to numerous inscriptions, while the name of the Moon-god was Sin, his title was al-ilah, i.e. "the deity," meaning that he was the chief or high god among the gods. As Coon pointed out, "The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God." The Moon-god was called al- ilah, i.e. the god, which was shortened to Allah in pre-Islamic times. The pagan Arabs even used Allah in the names they gave to their children. For example, both Muhammad's father and uncle had Allah as part of their names.

The fact that they were given such names by their pagan parents proves that Allah was the title for the Moon-god even in Muhammad's day. Prof. Coon goes on to say, "Similarly, under Mohammed's tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah, became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being."

This fact answers the questions, "Why is Allah never defined in the Qur'an? Why did Muhammad assume that the pagan Arabs already knew who Allah was?" Muhammad was raised in the religion of the Moon-god Allah. But he went one step further than his fellow pagan Arabs. While they believed that Allah, i.e. the Moon-god, was the greatest of all gods and the supreme deity in a pantheon of deities, Muhammad decided that Allah was not only the greatest god but the only god.

In effect he said, "Look, you already believe that the Moon-god Allah is the greatest of all gods. All I want you to do is to accept that the idea that he is the only god. I am not taking away the Allah you already worship. I am only taking away his wife and his daughters and all the other gods." This is seen from the fact that the first point of the Muslim creed is not, "Allah is great" but "Allah is the greatest," i.e., he is the greatest among the gods. Why would Muhammad say that Allah is the "greatest" except in a polytheistic context? The Arabic word is used to contrast the greater from the lesser. That this is true is seen from the fact that the pagan Arabs never accused Muhammad of preaching a different Allah than the one they already worshipped. This "Allah" was the Moon-god according to the archeological evidence. Muhammad thus attempted to have it both ways. To the pagans, he said that he still believed in the Moon-god Allah. To the Jews and the Christians, he said that Allah was their God too. But both the Jews and the Christians knew better and that is why they rejected his god Allah as a false god.

Al-Kindi, one of the early Christian apologists against Islam, pointed out that Islam and its god Allah did not come from the Bible but from the paganism of the Sabeans. They did not worship the God of the Bible but the Moon-god and his daughters al-Uzza, al-Lat and Manat. Dr. Newman concludes his study of the early Christian-Muslim debates by stating, "Islam proved itself to be...a separate and antagonistic religion which had sprung up from idolatry." Islamic scholar Caesar Farah concluded "There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians and Jews." The Arabs worshipped the Moon-god as a supreme deity. But this was not biblical monotheism. While the Moon-god was greater than all other gods and goddesses, this was still a polytheistic pantheon of deities. Now that we have the actual idols of the Moon-god, it is no longer possible to avoid the fact that Allah was a pagan god in pre-Islamic times. Is it any wonder then that the symbol of Islam is the crescent moon? That a crescent moon sits on top of their mosques and minarets? That a crescent moon is found on the flags of Islamic nations? That the Muslims fast during the month which begins and ends with the appearance of the crescent moon in the sky?

CONCLUSION

The pagan Arabs worshipped the Moon-god Allah by praying toward Mecca several times a day; making a pilgrimage to Mecca; running around the temple of the Moon-god called the Kabah; kissing the black stone; killing an animal in sacrifice to the Moon-god; throwing stones at the devil; fasting for the month which begins and ends with the crescent moon; giving alms to the poor, etc.,

The Muslim's claim that Allah is the God of the Bible and that Islam arose from the religion of the prophets and apostles is refuted by solid, overwhelming archeological evidence. Islam is nothing more than a revival of the ancient Moon-god cult. It has taken the symbols, the rites, the ceremonies, and even the name of its god from the ancient pagan religion of the Moon-god. As such, it is sheer idolatry and must be rejected by all those who follow the Torah and Gospel.

The religion of ancient Israel was based on revelation; the Old Testament says that God appeared in diverse places and spoke to the Patriarchs; there they raised altars of undressed stones, called Beth-el—or House of God. Man's sensual imagination soon led him "to collect his gods in the dust and fashion them as he pleased," imagining that God resided in these Stones. Thus it became Beth-aven or House of Vanity. Beth-el abounded in Chaldea, Asia, Egypt, Africa, Greece, in remote parts of Europe, among the Druids, Gauls, and Celto-Scythians, and in North and South America.

In the Hebrew language, stones fallen from the sky are called Bethel (Heb. "House of God"). After dreaming of a ladder reaching to heaven, Jacob called his stone pillow a Bethel-stone (Genesis 28:10-22).

"The Pagans imitated the Beth-el of Jacob and consecrated them with oil and blood, making them gods, calling them Betyles (betylus, baetyl, betyles). In classical antiquity a stone, either natural or artificially shaped, venerated as of divine origin, or as a symbol of divinity. There were a number of these sacred stones in Greece, the most famous being on the omphalos at Delphi. Likewise there were the so-called animated or oracular stones. "Strabo, Pliny, Helancius (Hellanicus) or Beth-al-Jupiter, Cybele, Venus, Mithras). The greater part of the natural Betyles were the black meteorites or fire-balls fallen from the heavens and regarded by the Sabeists as heavenly divinities. These meteorites were the Cabiri, and the Pelasgi—whose most noted worshippers were wandering or dispersed men" (The Trail of the Serpent, by Inquire Within, Boswell Publishing Co., Limited, London (1936) p. 10).

Meteorites-cults are common in Greco-Roman civilizations. According to the religious historian Mircea Eliade, the Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus contained a squat statue of the mother-goddess, carved from a meteorite that fell from Jupiter (Acts 19:26-35). The Palladium of Troy and the conic black stone or (Baetyl) of Elagabal in Emesa, Syria, are believed to be of meteoric origin. Likewise, the Phrygian mother goddess Cybele worshipped in Pessinus (later Rome) was a stone; doubtless a meteorite. A further example is the meteorite of Pessinunt in Phrygia, which was worshipped as "the needle of Cybele," brought to Rome in a powerful procession after the Punic war on advice from the Delphic oracle; there the meteorite was worshipped as a fertility goddess for further 500 years.

Hadschar al Aswad"The most famous of all of the stone fetishes of Arabia was, of course, the black stone in the sanctuary of Mecca. The Kabah was, and still is, a rectangular stone structure. Built into its Eastern corner is the black stone which had been an object of worship for many centuries before Mohammed appropriated the Kabah for his new religion, and made the pilgrimage to this holy place one of the pillars of Islam" (Mohammed: The man and his faith, Tor Andrae, 1936, Translated by Theophil Menzel, 1960, p. 13-30; Britannica, Arabian Religions, p. 1059, 1979). The "Hadschar al Aswad" in the Kabah is the most well known example of meteorite worship in newer times. Despite the prohibition of portraying God and adoration of objects, pilgrims to Mecca kiss this "Hadschar al Aswad" (black stone) which, according to the prophet is "Yamin Allah" (the right hand of God), supposedly a divine meteorite or Bethel-stone predating creation that fell at the feet of Adam and Eve. It is presently embedded in the southeastern corner of the Kabah. Muslims touch and kiss the black stone during Hajj. moongod.htm

by on May. 17, 2013 at 6:18 PM
Replies (21-30):
12hellokitty
by Ruby Member on May. 18, 2013 at 9:11 AM


Christianity can be shown in history and tradition to be a continuation of Judaism, as Christianity does not contradict Jewish history or texts.  Islam on the other hand does contradict much within the history of Judaism and Christianity.  

Quoting Mommabearbergh:

So what about the Jewish god? Seeing that Christian text is based in what is Jewish text.Is he not the same god you worship. Wasn't Jesus Jewish?


Quoting toomanypoodles:

 


Quoting JP-StrongForTwo:


Allah is the god of Abraham. Allah means God when translated from arabic to english. Alllah is the god of noah, moses, and Jesus. 


They are the same god. 


Of course, that is MY belief .


 Again...you are wrong.  lol


But...that's my belief. 


My Christian belief teaches God is Father, Son and Holy Spirit---a three in One Godhead.  Jesus is God.  Muslims do not believe their god, Allah, is three fold, a trinity, so the Christian God and the Muslim's Allah are not the same. 




SLTmom
by Silver Member on May. 18, 2013 at 9:13 AM
4 moms liked this

This is possibly one of the MOST offensive things I've read.  Many don't beleive the Christian God is anything more than an excuse for violence.  Hence the Crusades.  The Spanish Inquisiton.  The Salem Witch Trials.  Just because some guy in the desert claimed to be the Son of God 2000 years ago doesn't make it real.  

Your ignorance on the history and the interconnected beliefs of these three religions is astounding.

Quoting Farmlady09:

With no real offense meant, even though it is by nature offensive just to say it, I don't believe Allah is anything more than an excuse for violence. Just because Mohammed wrote a book about him doesn't make him real, and it certainly doesn't make him one and the same as the Christian God.

Whether or not Allah is some revisionist form of the moon god doesn't really matter to me ... but it makes more sense than lumping him in with the two Abrahamic religions because some bored shepherd said so. In any case, as a Christian, he gets nothing from me.




"I would rather have a mind opened by wonder than one closed by belief"  Gerry Spence

IhartU
by Gold Member on May. 18, 2013 at 9:16 AM

 

Quoting Mommabearbergh:

So what about the Jewish god? Seeing that Christian text is based in what is Jewish text.Is he not the same god you worship. Wasn't Jesus Jewish?


Quoting toomanypoodles:

 


Quoting JP-StrongForTwo:


Allah is the god of Abraham. Allah means God when translated from arabic to english. Alllah is the god of noah, moses, and Jesus. 


They are the same god. 


Of course, that is MY belief .


 Again...you are wrong.  lol


But...that's my belief. 


My Christian belief teaches God is Father, Son and Holy Spirit---a three in One Godhead.  Jesus is God.  Muslims do not believe their god, Allah, is three fold, a trinity, so the Christian God and the Muslim's Allah are not the same. 


 

 I kind of think there is a difference here. I believe both Christianity and Islam as well as Mormonism took the already established religion of the Jews and used it to catipult their 'new version'. There are differences through: Christianity says their beliefs are a 'continuation' of the OT where as the Muslims say they had it first, took it back and fixed it to it's original form and Mormons added more to it.

 They all say it's the same god but if the Jews actually took their beliefs from older, already established beliefs like those in Sumer, Egypt and Babylon- which ARE older,  is the god of Abraham nothing more than a version of say Marduk or Ra or any other older supreme deity in an ancient pantheon?

IhartU
by Gold Member on May. 18, 2013 at 9:22 AM

 

Quoting 12hellokitty:

 

Christianity can be shown in history and tradition to be a continuation of Judaism, as Christianity does not contradict Jewish history or texts.  Islam on the other hand does contradict much within the history of Judaism and Christianity.  

Quoting Mommabearbergh:

So what about the Jewish god? Seeing that Christian text is based in what is Jewish text.Is he not the same god you worship. Wasn't Jesus Jewish?


Quoting toomanypoodles:

 


Quoting JP-StrongForTwo:


Allah is the god of Abraham. Allah means God when translated from arabic to english. Alllah is the god of noah, moses, and Jesus. 


They are the same god. 


Of course, that is MY belief .


 Again...you are wrong.  lol


But...that's my belief. 


My Christian belief teaches God is Father, Son and Holy Spirit---a three in One Godhead.  Jesus is God.  Muslims do not believe their god, Allah, is three fold, a trinity, so the Christian God and the Muslim's Allah are not the same. 


 

 

 I tend to agree with you here. Christianity is a continuation because Jesus was a Jew and there is a connection but there are differences in ceremonies, laws and doctrine between it and Judaism because well... one faith believes Jesus is the messiah and through grace and sacrifice made some of those laws in the OT no longer necessary.

 Jesus being Jewish is the connection between Christianity and Judaism but Islam doesn't have that kind of connection and so they had to make them up like Jesus being a prophet- that way they can lay claim to him even though they don't believe he's the messiah, Adam building the Ka'ba and Abraham visiting Mecca...

 There IS a big difference between real connections and fake ones.

 

romalove
by Roma on May. 18, 2013 at 9:24 AM


Quoting IhartU:

 

Quoting 12hellokitty:


Christianity can be shown in history and tradition to be a continuation of Judaism, as Christianity does not contradict Jewish history or texts.  Islam on the other hand does contradict much within the history of Judaism and Christianity.  

Quoting Mommabearbergh:

So what about the Jewish god? Seeing that Christian text is based in what is Jewish text.Is he not the same god you worship. Wasn't Jesus Jewish?


Quoting toomanypoodles:

 


Quoting JP-StrongForTwo:


Allah is the god of Abraham. Allah means God when translated from arabic to english. Alllah is the god of noah, moses, and Jesus. 


They are the same god. 


Of course, that is MY belief .


 Again...you are wrong.  lol


But...that's my belief. 


My Christian belief teaches God is Father, Son and Holy Spirit---a three in One Godhead.  Jesus is God.  Muslims do not believe their god, Allah, is three fold, a trinity, so the Christian God and the Muslim's Allah are not the same. 




 I tend to agree with you here. Christianity is a continuation because Jesus was a Jew and there is a connection but there are differences in ceremonies, laws and doctrine between it and Judaism because well... one faith believes Jesus is the messiah and through grace and sacrifice made some of those laws in the OT no longer necessary.

 Jesus being Jewish is the connection between Christianity and Judaism but Islam doesn't have that kind of connection and so they had to make them up like Jesus being a prophet- that way they can lay claim to him even though they don't believe he's the messiah, Adam building the Ka'ba and Abraham visiting Mecca...

 There IS a big difference between real connections and fake ones.

 

Jews and Christians share OT of the Bible.  

Talee
by Gold Member on May. 18, 2013 at 9:25 AM

Gonna read this later, thanks.

Mommabearbergh
by on May. 18, 2013 at 9:28 AM
I was asking more poodle because she said her god is a trinity but Jewish people don't believe in a trinity and Christianity although looked at is a continuation.so is her God different then the Jewish god and if so why use Jewish text?


Quoting 12hellokitty:


Christianity can be shown in history and tradition to be a continuation of Judaism, as Christianity does not contradict Jewish history or texts.  Islam on the other hand does contradict much within the history of Judaism and Christianity.  


Quoting Mommabearbergh:

So what about the Jewish god? Seeing that Christian text is based in what is Jewish text.Is he not the same god you worship. Wasn't Jesus Jewish?





Quoting toomanypoodles:

 



Quoting JP-StrongForTwo:



Allah is the god of Abraham. Allah means God when translated from arabic to english. Alllah is the god of noah, moses, and Jesus. 



They are the same god. 



Of course, that is MY belief .



 Again...you are wrong.  lol



But...that's my belief. 



My Christian belief teaches God is Father, Son and Holy Spirit---a three in One Godhead.  Jesus is God.  Muslims do not believe their god, Allah, is three fold, a trinity, so the Christian God and the Muslim's Allah are not the same. 







SuperChicken
by on May. 18, 2013 at 9:42 AM
4 moms liked this

I have to agree that just because somebody wrote a book about some god, that doesn't make him real.   

Quoting Farmlady09:

With no real offense meant, even though it is by nature offensive just to say it, I don't believe Allah is anything more than an excuse for violence. Just because Mohammed wrote a book about him doesn't make him real, and it certainly doesn't make him one and the same as the Christian God.

Whether or not Allah is some revisionist form of the moon god doesn't really matter to me ... but it makes more sense than lumping him in with the two Abrahamic religions because some bored shepherd said so. In any case, as a Christian, he gets nothing from me.


 

romalove
by Roma on May. 18, 2013 at 9:43 AM


Quoting SuperChicken:

I have to agree that just because somebody wrote a book about some god, that doesn't make him real.   

Quoting Farmlady09:

With no real offense meant, even though it is by nature offensive just to say it, I don't believe Allah is anything more than an excuse for violence. Just because Mohammed wrote a book about him doesn't make him real, and it certainly doesn't make him one and the same as the Christian God.

Whether or not Allah is some revisionist form of the moon god doesn't really matter to me ... but it makes more sense than lumping him in with the two Abrahamic religions because some bored shepherd said so. In any case, as a Christian, he gets nothing from me.



Very succinct.  LOL

stacymomof2
by Ruby Member on May. 18, 2013 at 10:17 AM
1 mom liked this

I think the problem with this type of argument is that it doesn't allow for the very nature of religion.  Religion is, ultimately, a way to describe spirituality, a feeling and belief in a presence that is on a different spiritual plane than people.  You are using the belief in that other spiritual plane and trying to argue it with archeology and historical timelines.  You don't believe in it, but you can never convince a person trying to describe their belief about what this spirituality is by telling them they are worshipping something that you are describing as a person who doesn't believe.  And the fact is, they are not worshipping what you are describing.  Because they don't believe it.

This article especially has strayed from straight archeology and added a philosophical argument about religion.  It is not logical to tell Muslims that they aren't worshipping the "same God" because they believe they ARE.  They don't describe Allah as a "mood god."  They describe him as THE God, the monotheistic one, the one that Jesus and Moses worshipped.  

Taking Arab history and evolution of the transformation from peganism to monotheism, and saying they are the same because it used a word for god that is similar or shares charachteristics in the manner or worship, is just a flat denial of what the people actually believe.  I mean, yes, you can deny that there is such a being, but you can't tell them what they are worshiping in their belief system.  They are the ones carrying the belief.  You are ignoring that many people through the history of human kind have shared common beliefs about their supernatural beings, that ways of showing sprirituality are going to have similarities and common threads.  It's the nature of religion, all religions.

Ultimately, they don't worship a moon god, because they don't worship a moon god.  It is really as simple as that.


Quoting IhartU:

 

Quoting Mommabearbergh:

So what about the Jewish god? Seeing that Christian text is based in what is Jewish text.Is he not the same god you worship. Wasn't Jesus Jewish?


Quoting toomanypoodles:

 


Quoting JP-StrongForTwo:


Allah is the god of Abraham. Allah means God when translated from arabic to english. Alllah is the god of noah, moses, and Jesus. 


They are the same god. 


Of course, that is MY belief .


 Again...you are wrong.  lol


But...that's my belief. 


My Christian belief teaches God is Father, Son and Holy Spirit---a three in One Godhead.  Jesus is God.  Muslims do not believe their god, Allah, is three fold, a trinity, so the Christian God and the Muslim's Allah are not the same. 


 

 I kind of think there is a difference here. I believe both Christianity and Islam as well as Mormonism took the already established religion of the Jews and used it to catipult their 'new version'. There are differences through: Christianity says their beliefs are a 'continuation' of the OT where as the Muslims say they had it first, took it back and fixed it to it's original form and Mormons added more to it.

 They all say it's the same god but if the Jews actually took their beliefs from older, already established beliefs like those in Sumer, Egypt and Babylon- which ARE older,  is the god of Abraham nothing more than a version of say Marduk or Ra or any other older supreme deity in an ancient pantheon?


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